What are the types of vaccines?
How the vaccine works
The main component of a vaccine is an inactivated virus or a vector carrying viral characteristics.How to effectively prevent the new coronavirus? Are UV germicidal lamps effective against COVID-19?
Simply put, the working principle of a vaccine is to trigger the human immune response and produce a large number of antibodies by injecting the vector or inactivating the virus, so as to achieve the effect of premature immunity against specific diseases.
Type of vaccine
The current common new crown vaccines are roughly divided into the following types:
① Inactivated virus vaccine
At present, the most important inactivated vaccines available on the market are influenza inactivated vaccines; secondly, there are inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines, inactivated hepatitis A vaccines, rabies vaccines, cholera vaccines, etc., which can be said to be widely used.
the new crown inactivated vaccine: contains the killed SARS-CoV-2 new crown virus-the killed virus still retains antigenicity, but it will not cause the vaccinated person to be infected with the new crown; it can be recognized by the immune system and trigger an immune response.
After successfully establishing an immune memory, the immune system of the vaccinated person can fight against the new coronavirus in the future.
② Adenovirus vector vaccine
The advantages of adenovirus vector vaccines are actually very obvious, such as 1/ almost no risk of accidental mutations, low pathogenicity; 2/ relatively mature technology, low production cost, high productivity; 3/ convenient and flexible storage conditions, long time; 4/ The most important point is the strong immunity!
At present, the vaccines of Oxford University/AstraZeneca in the United Kingdom, Cansino in China, Jannsen in the United States, and Gamaleya in Russia all use viral vector technology to develop new coronavirus vaccines.
③ Recombinant protein subunit vaccine
Vaccines using this technology contain SARS-CoV-2 virus proteins, which are injected into the body to be recognized by the immune system, thereby triggering an immune response. There are already on the market, including hepatitis B vaccine, influenza subunit vaccine, and so on.
The advantages and disadvantages are also very obvious: for example, high safety-because the vaccine only has the antigen protein of the pathogen, there is no risk of infection; the production capacity is large, which is very suitable for large-scale production; and the stability is very high.
However, because the vaccine only uses part of the pathogen’s protein as the antigen, its immunity is weak, and adjuvant adjuvants are generally needed to enhance the immune response of the vaccinated person.
The joint research and development of Novavax in the United States and GlaxoSmithKline/Sanofi in the United Kingdom are based on protein subunit vaccine technology.
④ Gene vaccine
Genetic Vaccines, also known as Nucleic Acid Vaccines, are mainly divided into DNA vaccines and RNA vaccines.
It has obvious advantages, such as1/ Because it does not rely on cell expansion, detection and quality control are very easy; 2/ It saves cell culture and expansion time, greatly improving vaccine production capacity. For the current situation, vaccine production The speed is so important!
⑤ Live attenuated vaccine
Attenuated Vaccines live attenuated vaccine refers to the mutation of the virus to obtain a pathogenic variant with reduced or non-toxic toxicity-injected into the body of the vaccinator so that the human body produces an immune response and obtains immune protection.
However, in most countries, vaccines are either insufficient in supply or there are some quality problems, and some people have a different awareness of prevention and control methods, causing the COVID-19 virus to continue to spread, and the number of deaths from the virus is still on the rise. Prevent virus infections should not be careless. How to effectively prevent the new coronavirus?
UVC radiation has been proven to damage the outer protein coating of SARS-Coronavirus. UVC radiation may also effectively inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is the virus that caused the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). UVC radiation is A known disinfectant for air, water, and non-porous surfaces. For decades, UVC radiation has been effectively used to reduce the spread of bacteria (such as tuberculosis). Therefore, UVC lamps are often referred to as “germicidal” lamps.
At present, the UVC 222NM band has a good sterilization effect and is harmless to the human body. 222nm far uvc lamp safe wavelength and mercury-free. safe and effective.
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